News / Events
News and Events
Highlights of the News…
The fifth issue of “The Pulse”, Newsletter of the UB Department of Political Science has been released. It was prepared under the editorship of Munroe Eagles and provides an overview of the Department’s recent and upcoming activities as well as announcements about the 2016-2017 accomplishments of our PSC faculty, students, and alumni.
Professor Jacob Neiheisel was featured in WalletHub’s recent piece about the most patriotic states in America. See link: here
Panel Discussion: Dealing with Polarization, Thursday, April 13, 2017 from 4-5:30pm in 110 Knox Hall(North Campus). See full details here.
At this year’s annual APSA conference in Philadelphia, UB’s Political Science Professor Rachael Hinkle received the award for the 2016 Best Journal Article Award presented by the Law and Courts section of the American Political Science Association. It was awarded for her article in the Journal of Politics entitled “Legal Constraint in the U.S. Courts of Appeals.”
Political Science Professor James Campbell’s pin collection offers peek into presidential campaign history. See story here.
UB Political Science Professor Jacob Kathman is quoted in the National Post in an article about Canada’s renewed interest in peacekeeping at a time when the United Nations peacekeeping office is in crisis. See full story here.
A new book by UB political scientist James Campbell explains how a moderate nation became divided. See story here.
The fourth issue of “The Pulse”, Newsletter of the UB Department of Political Science has been released. This was prepared under the editorship of Munroe Eagles and provides an overview of the Department’s recent and upcoming activities as well as announcements about the accomplishments of our faculty, students, and alumni.
An article in Christian Science Monitor about why Donald Trump was able to buck the GOP establishment to become the party’s presumptive presidential nominee quotes UB Political Science Professor Jacob Neiheisel. See full article here.
Madelaine Britt, a double major in environmental design and political science, was one of 54 students selected from 200 finalists to receive the Truman Scholarship following a rigorous multi-stage selection process – Read full story here.
SUNY Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science Claude Welch is retiring at the end of the semester after 52 years at UB – Read full story here:UB Reporter link
Distinguished UB faculty member, PSC’s Professor Claude E. Welch Jr., will receive the UB President’s Medal in recognition of extraordinary service to the university during the 170th annual University Commencement on May 15th. See story in UB Reporter here.
UB Distinguished Professor James Campbell was featured in WalletHub’s recent article about New Hampshire primary. You can find the piece here: https://wallethub.com/edu/new-hampshire-us-resemblance/18589/#james-campbell
Article appearing in the UB Reporter(8/6/15):
While Donald Trump’s authenticity is boosting his popularity in the polls, that campaign style will come back to haunt him, UB faculty member James Campbell predicts.
Authenticity key to Trump popularity
At the 11th Annual Celebration of Faculty & Staff Academic Excellence ceremony held on October 8th, 2014, Dr. Claude E. Welch(shown here with Provost Charles Zukoski & President Satish Tripathi) was recognized for having achieved an exceptional milestone, completing 50 years of service to UB. Several of our Political Science faculty and graduate students attended the event. Congratulations Dr. Welch!
Pictured here(from L to R): Govinda B, Prof. Neiheisel, Mehwish S., Prof. Palmer, Prof. Kathman, Prof. Welch, Prof. Battista, Prof. Halpern, Mumo N., & Suparna S.
Congratulations to PSC Assistant Professor Rachael Hinkle(pictured here with her advisor Jim Spriggs from Washington University in St. Louis) on winning the American Political Science Association’s Edward S. Corwin Award given for the best dissertation in Public Law. (full story below)
Professor Claude Welch of the Department of Political Science received the
American Political Science Association’s 2014 lifetime achievement Award for
Distinguished Contributions to the Field of Human Rights at the association’s
annual meeting in August. (Link to full story)
“The extraordinary level of interdependence between Canada and the United
States makes our partnership each country’s most important bilateral
relationship,” says Munroe Eagles, professor of political science and director
of UB’s Canadian Studies Program. “Understanding Canada is, therefore, of
immediate and pressing importance for the United States. The academic community
plays an important part in helping to educate policymakers and the
public-private sectors about the economic, political, trade, security, defense,
environmental, technological, scientific and cultural dimensions of Canada-U.S.
relations,” he says.
The Department congratulates Professor Lynn Mather for being recognized
by the American Political Science Association as this year’s winner of
the Law and Courts Lasting Contribution Award. This award is given
annually for a book or journal article that has made a lasting
impression on the field of law and courts. See here for more
Department of Political Science congratulates Dylan McLean for being
awarded a Dissertation Fellowship by the UB College of Arts and
Sciences. The Fellowship will provide Dylan with a stipend during the
Fall 2014 semester so that he can focus on his dissertation research. (see full story below)
Dylan McLean & Mehwish Sarwari, both graduate students in
the department, have been awarded Graduate Student Excellence in Teaching Awards
for 2013-2014. The University honored the award recipients for their
“exceptional competence and dedication as a teacher” in a presentation ceremony
and reception in the Center for the Arts.
Congratulations to Jake Kathman for being selected by our undergraduate
majors as the 2014 recipient of the Lisa Hertel Teaching Award. Rachel
Coolican presented the award to Jake. Rachel was the 2014 recipient of
the Outstanding Senior award in Political Science.
The second issue of “The Pulse” Spring 2014
Newsletter of the UB Department of Political Science has been released.
NEW: Professor Claude Welch appears in Mo
Rocca’s CBS Sunday Morning segment about Millard Fillmore (interview
clips at 0:31, 4:12, and 6:03)
Longtime UB faculty member Claude Welch will give the memorial address
at UB’s annual commemoration of the birthday of Millard Fillmore, the
university’s first chancellor and 13th president of the United States,
on Jan. 7.
It is with deep sorrow that the Department reports the passing of our colleague and friend Professor Franco Mattei. Franco joined the Department in 1992 as an Assistant Professor in the American Politics field. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1999 and served as the Director of Graduate Studies for several years before becoming Department Chair in 2005-06. He retired after the Fall 2010 semester.
Political Science at UB Ranks 22nd out of 94 in a National Study of the Public Impact of Social Science Departments.
The first issue of “The Pulse” Spring 2013 Newsletter of the UB Department of Political Science has been released.
Photographs of the world travels of Claude E. Welch, Jr., SUNY Distinguished Service Professor, and his wife, Jeannette Ludwig, Associate Professor in UB’s Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, are featured in the UB Library’s Welch-Ludwig Collection. Do not miss this. Click here.
See the full stories and more below —
UB Political Science Ranked 22nd of 94 Departments Nationally.
A recently released study of Media Impact by the Center for Public Anthropology rated UB’s Political Science Department as 22nd out of 94 political science departments across the nation. The study was based on the Google News Archive’s tracking of citations in the press from 2006 to 2011. Stanford topped the list, followed by American University, University of Pennsylvania, and the University of California at Berkeley. The coverage of UB’s Political Science faculty in the press was ranked higher than the much larger departments at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Cornell, Princeton, and Yale. The data on total citations to faculty were collected as part of a larger study of public citations to faculty work compared to public expenditures on faculty research. For the full study click. The Total Citation Score provides the “Public Impact” ranking.
The Inaugural Issue of The Pulse, the Department’s Newsletter!
Prepared under the editorship of Munroe Eagles, The Pulse provides an overview of the Department’s recent and upcoming activities as well as articles about the accomplishments of our faculty, students, and alumni. Please share this newsletter with all friends of UB Political Science. Electronic copies of The Pulse are available for downloading here. If you have any news items, updates, and other information to share with our alums, please send them to our newsletter editor, Munroe Eagles, at email@example.com.
The Department is now on Facebook. “Like” us here.
We’ve recently created a Political Science Facebook page where we post stories on faculty, alumni, current student activity & other PSC related information. Take a moment to check it out & “like” us.
Job Placement Success
Chair Professor Harvey Palmer, reports that all of our students who were actively on the market landed jobs this year. This is a particularly remarkable achievement given the deep and prolonged recession and the resulting bad job market.
Here’s a summary of those placements (and two that were renewed from last year):
Annika Hagley, Monmouth College (IL)
Josh Meddaugh, Clayton State(GA)
Fait Muedini, Eckerd College (FL)
Sooh-Rhee Ryu, University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
Nick Seabrook, University of North Florida
Mayra Velez, Buffalo State(NY)
Visiting Assistant Professor positions:
Bryan Dettrey, Oklahoma State University
Meredith Petersheim, Keuka College
Jesse Wasson, Rochester Institute of Technology
Eric Wilk, University of Georgia [2nd year]
Adam Nye, Penn State University [2nd year]
This is a great accomplishment for our graduate program, especially given how competitive the job market was this year, and hopefully something we can build upon going forward. Much credit belongs to Professor Palmer, the faculty who worked closely with these graduate students, and the diligence of these newly minted PhDs. Great news! Great jobs!
Lamb Named Strickland Teacher for 2011
Professor Charles M. Lamb has been named by Middle Tennessee State University as its 2011 Strickland Teacher. As the honored Strickland Teacher, Professor Lamb will teach several classes over two days, hold a teaching workshop, and deliver a general lecture. The visit is planned for the Fall of 2011. Professor Lamb received his undergraduate degree at Middle Tennessee State University.
The faculty of 15 members in 2014-15 published several peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. And more is in the pipeline. Faculty members also presented 28 convention papers.The quality is as impressive as the quantity. The faculty’s articles appeared this year in the British Journal of Political Science, Political Research Quarterly, International Studies Quarterly, and Legislative Studies Quarterly as well as several other highly regarded and highly selective journals. This is a very impressive record in both its quality and quantity of continuous productivity.
Click HERE for a list of the individual research highlights and publications. Also, check out the individual faculty’s webpages to get the specifics of the varied, interestig, and important projects faculty have been working on.
The Research Workshop Series:
The Department has a very active series of faculty and graduate student workshop presentations and occasional guest speakers. Please visit the Department Workshop page for a list of past workshop topics as well as upcoming workshops.
Graduate Student Professionalization Seminars:
The Director of Graduate Studies, Professor Jacob Kathman, organizes a series of professionalization seminars for graduate students. These address practical issues of becoming a productive and successful political scientist. Topics cover issues from comprehensive exams and dissertations to teaching, conference participation, and research publication.
On Friday January 27, 2012, Professor F.H. Buckley of George Mason University presented a talk entitled “The Efficient Secret:
How America Nearly Adopted a Parliamentary System, and Why It Should
Have Done So.”
In the Fall 2011 semester, Professor Edward J. Lopez of San Jose State gave a talk entitled “The Problem with the Holdout Problem.”
In the Fall 2010 semester, there were three Markets and States lectures:
Professor Guy Whitten of Texas A&M University gave a talk entitled “Buttery Guns and Welfare Hawks: The Politics of Defense Spending in Advanced Industrial Democracies,” and Professor Larry Bartels of Princeton University gave a talk on “Public Opinion, Political Institutions, and Policy Congruence: Taxes and Spending in Comparative Perspective.”
Professor Michael Ross of UCLA gave a talk in the Markets and States series on March 5, 2010.
Professor Ross is the Director of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at UCLA. He is also the author of Timber Booms and Institutional Breakdown in Southeast Asia (Cambridge, 2001). The title of Professor Ross’s talk was “Latin America’s Missing Oil Wars.”
Peter Leeson, professor of economics at George Mason University, delivered the first States and Markets talk of the 2010-11 academic year. On September 12, he presented a talk entitled, “Trial by Battle.”
Earlier Political Science Speakers
On November 13, 2009, Professor Robert Grafstein of the University of Georgia presented a talk on “Conflict between Altruitsic Generations: Social Security and the Politics of Aging Societies.” He is the author of Choice-Free Rationality (Michigan, 1999).
On February 19, 2009, Professor Peter J. Katzenstein, the Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. Professor of International Studies at Cornell University and current President of the American Political Science Association gave a lecture on “Obamania and Anti-Americanism: The United States and the World in the 21st Century” for UB’s undergraduate academies.
On February 20, 2009, Professor Frederick J. Boemke of the University of Iowa talked about his research on “Subverting Administrative Oversight: Campaign Contributions and Nursing Home Inspections” with faculty and graduate students in the Department.
On September 26, 2008, Lee Epstein, the Henry Wade Rogers Professor at the Northwestern University School of Law gave a talk about her research titled “Untangling the Causal Effects of Sex on Judging.” Professor Epstein’s talk was co-sponsored by the Baldy Center for Law and Social Policy.
Three other speakers were brought to the Department in the 2007-08 year through a grant that Jason Sorens received for a series of research workshops on “Markets and States.” The first speaker in this series was Professor Erik Gartzke of University of California at San Diego who presented his research on “The Relevance of Power in International Relations.” Professor David M. Konisky of the University of Missouri, Columbia followed with a presentation on “Exporting Air Pollution? Regulatory Enforcement and Environmental Free Riding in the United States.” The final speaker in the series this past Spring was Professor Nita Rudra of the University of Pittsburgh. Professor Rudra discussed her research project “Have Governments Gone Too Far?”
DISTINGUISHED ALUMNUS AWARD
The Department of Political Science is pleased to announce that it has named Professor Edward G. Carmines as the 2011 recipient of the Department’s Distinguished Alumnus Award. Professor Carmines received his Ph.D. in Political Science from the University at Buffalo in 1975.
Professor Carmines joined the faculty of Indiana University that same year and currently is both the Rudy Professor of Political Science and the Warner O. Chapman Professor of Political Science. He served as chair of the IU department from 1990 to 1997. His principal areas of research and teaching are American politics, political behavior, and research methodology.
He is the author of seven books and numerous articles and book chapters. He has also received many honors and awards, including the APSA’s Gladys M. Kammerer Award for best book in American national politics. He received this award twice, once in 1990 for his classic study Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics (co-authored with James Stimson) and again in 1998 for Reaching Beyond Race. He is the only person to have won this prestigious award twice.
In making the award, the Department observed that “Professor Edward G. Carmines is a scholar of great distinction and he has brought great credit to the University at Buffalo and to its Department of Political Science.” Professor Carmines is the third recipient of the Department’s Distinguished Alumnus Award. The Distinguished Alumnus Award winner in 2009 was Professor Harvey Starr of the University of South Carolina. Professor Starr received his BA from UB in 1967. He was recently voted president-elect of the International Studies Association (ISA). The recipient for 2010 was Professor Karen O’Connor of American University. Professor O’Connor received her J.D. from UB in 1977 and her Ph.D. from UB in 1979.
PSC Assistant Professor Rachael Hinkle given American Political Science Association’s Edward S.Corwin Award for the best dissertation in Public Law. August 2014
The award certificate praises Professor Hinkle’s dissertation, “The Role of the United States Courts of Appeals in Legal Development,” as a clearly written, cogently argued, and creatively conceptualized study of how legal factors constrain Court of Appeals decision making and how Court of Appeals decisions impact state government policy choices. Demonstrating an astute understanding of the existing literature on legal development and Courts of Appeals, Hinkle moves this research forward through three major chapters addressing different aspects of her topic. ln the first, she explores the question of whether legal factors constrain judges. She distinguishes between “binding” precedent within the circuit and “persuasive” precedent from other circuits and asks whether the former acts as a greater constraint on judges than the latter. Using the impressive data set made up of judges’ citation choices she finds that judges cite and interpret precedent more ideologically then it is out of circuit than when it is binding. In the second main essay she uses the same citation data to ask whether judges act strategically in anticipation of en banc review. Using a statistical model that relies on the ideological location of the precedent, the judge, and
the median judge in the Circuit, she makes a persuasive case for strategic behavior in the use of precedent on three judge panels. The third essay focuses on how Court of Appeals decisions contribute to legal development outside of the courts. She uses computational text analysisof state legislation and court opinions to demonstrate that circuit court decisions do impact state legislative action. This
dissertation is an impressive piece of work about an important level of courts, which she appropriately notes handles far more cases than
the Supreme Court and thus must surely play a substantial role in the development of the law. It demonstrates sophisticated understanding of
the existing literature and novel methodological approaches to answering important questions in the field
2014 Lisa Hertel Award Winner
Jacob Kathman has been named by as the winner of the 2014 Lisa Hertel Outstanding Professor Award. The award recipent is selected by the Department’s undergraduate students. The announcement of this year’s award was made at the Department’s 2013-14 Senior reception.
2010 Plesur Award Winner
Claude E. Welch, Jr. was named as a recipient of the Milton Plesur Award for undergraduate teaching for the 2009-10 academic year. The award is made by the Student Association and recognizes teaching excellence and commitment to students. I understand that there will be an award ceremony on April 7th in the Student Union in Room 210. It will begin at 3:00pm. There will be a small reception following the awards. I hope you will be able to attend.
Award from the Graduate Student Association for Exceptional Dedication to the Program
The Political Science Graduate Student Association created an award several years ago for the member of the faculty who exhibited an “Exceptional Dedication to the
Graduate Program.” The graduate students named Professor Jacob Kathman as the award recepient for 2014-15. Past recipients of this award include Professor Philip Arena 2011-12 & Professor Harvey Palmer in 2009-10.
Lamb Wins Barker Award
Professor Charles Lamb was awarded the Lucius Barker Award for the best paper presented at the 2008 Midwest Political Science Association conference on a topic investigating race or ethnicity and politics. Professor Lamb’s paper was”The Origins of Federal Fair Housing Policy: Racial Segregation, Restrictive Covenants, and the Truman Administration.”
Mattei Memorial Scholarship 2015-2016
Kevin Stout has been named 2015 recipient of the Professor Franco Mattei Memorial Scholarship. This scholarship was established in 2014 in Franco’s memory to recognize the best performing Ph.D. students in our program who share his research interests in elections and parties specifically and American politics more generally. Franco served on the Political Science faculty from 1992-2010 during which time he built an impressive publication record and made significant service contributions as Director of Graduate Studies and Department Chair. Funded by a generous gift from Luciana Mattei and Franco’s extended family, a scholarship of $2,000 will be awarded annually from 2014-2018 in Franco’s memory. Keith Blackley was 1st recipient of this award for 2014-15.
Dissertation Fellowship 2014-2015
Department of Political Science congratulates Dylan McLean for being
awarded a Dissertation Fellowship by the UB College of Arts and
Sciences. The Fellowship will provide Dylan with a stipend during the
Fall 2014 semester so that he can focus on his dissertation research. Dylan’s
dissertation seeks to explain why the United States has been so
resistant to broad gun control while other similar countries have
adopted strict regimes to regulate firearms. Why has American gun
culture remained so influential politically? Where does its strength
come from? What drives it? In order to address these questions Dylan
is conducting research on, and in, Canada and the United States in order
to compare and understand each country’s gun control movement and gun
political culture. He suspects that the answers to these questions go
beyond the existence of the American Second Amendment and the
absence of similar constitutional provisions elsewhere. An alternative
answer may be uncovered by investigating the political meanings and
symbology, including their historical basis, associated with firearms
and firearm ownership. Gathering several different types of data to
evaluate this alternative hypothesis is the central focus of Dylan’s
Best Graduate Paper Award, 2014-15
This award is made annually from among papers nominated by members of the faculty. First awarded in 2005, the prize is intended to recognize original research that makes a significant contribution to understanding political phenomena. The Graduate Studies Committee have
selected Muhammed Erenler & Yohan Park as the co-recipients of the award for the 2014-15 academic year.
Paul D. Senese Graduate Assistantship
The Department of Political Science is delighted to announce the selection of Reverien Mfizi as the ninth graduate student designated to hold the Paul D. Senese Graduate Assistantship. He holds this designation for the 2015-2016 academic year.
In the fall of 2007, the Department’s faculty approved the naming of a graduate assistantship in honor of Paul D. Senese. Professor Senese was a highly accomplished and very promising scholar in International Politics who joined the Department in 1998 and passed away in the summer of 2006. This graduate assistantship is named in his memory and reflects Paul’s commitment to UB, political science, its graduate students, and the study of international politics.
The Department’s Graduate Committee awards the distinction of the Paul D. Senese Graduate Assistantship annually to a continuing graduate student. The designation of the recipient of this honor is based on the Committee’s collective judgment of the student’s superior performance in the program, with a preference given to students in the international politics field.
As well as the honor of this designation, there are two tangible forms of recognition. First, each annual award winner’s name is inscribed on a plaque permanently displayed in the Department’s main office. Second, the award recepient receives a copy of the The Steps to War: An Empirical Study by Paul D. Senese and John A. Vasquez (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008) with a bookplate commemorating the award.
Past award winners are Mehwish Sarwari(2014-15), Eric Hanson (2013-14), Jackie Sievert(2012-13) Brian Hardt (2011-12), Nick Nicoletti (2010-11), Bryan Dettrey (2009-10), Fait Muedini (2008-09), and Jesse Wasson (2007-08).
Graduate Student Excellence in Teaching Award
Eric Hanson, a graduate student in the Department, have been awarded Honorable Mention at this year’s Graduate Student Excellence in Teaching Awards for 2014-2015. The University honored the award recipients for their “exceptional competence and dedication as a teacher” in a presentation ceremony and reception in the Center for the Arts. Past graduate students in our department who have won this award include Dylan McLean & Mehwish Sarwari in 2014, Nick Nicoletti in 2013, Jackie Sievert in 2012, Annika Hagley in 2010 and Fait Muedini in 2009.
Reception for Graduating Political Science Students of 2015
In the Spring of 2009, the Department began a new tradition of an end-of-year Reception in Honor of Graduating Political Science Students. We continued this in the Spring of 2015 with a reception in 502 Park Hall. The event was a success and well attended by both graduating majors, underclassmen political science majors, friends and faculty. There was a very brief program to recognize graduating students and particular student accomplishments. Hors d’oeuvres were served and a good time was had by all. Political Science graduates were recognized at the University’s graduation ceremony. Congratulations to each member of the graduating Class of 2015! We hope that you stay in touch with your professors and fellow students through the website’s alumni page.
Outstanding Senior in 2014-15
Jessica Yarnes was selected by the Department as its outstanding senior.
Robert H. Stern Award 2014-15
The winner of the Robert H. Stern Award for the Most Outstanding Undergraduate Paper was Sam Maslow.
Pi Sigma Alpha
Several new members were inducted into Pi Sigma Alpha, the national honor society for political science in April 2015. Congratulations!
In addition to fulfilling their research and teaching commitments and to serving the Department, College, and University in various administrative capacities, a number of the faculty were also active in providing service to the political science profession and to the public more broadly.
Several members of the Department held national leadership positions in professional organizations, on editorial boards of scholarly journals, and in organizing professional meetings and conferences. Professor Campbell serves as President of Pi Sigma Alpha, the National Honor Society of Political Science. Professors Battista, Campbell, Eagles, Welch, and Zagare each serve on at least one editorial board of a scholarly journal. Professors Benson, Campbell, Danilovic, and Eagles each served on at least one executive council or advisory council of a national professional organization.
Scholarship involves both the production and the dissemination of knowledge and the dissemination does not stop at the classroom door nor at the professional conference, several political science faculty are very active in sharing their research and ideas with the public through the media and in direct forums and otherwise bringing their professional expertise into the public arena. This is a key aspect of civic engagement. Claude Welch was called upon by international (Pravda in Bratislava, Slovakia) and local (WBEN, WHAM, WBFO radio, WGRZ, WKBW, and Bridges-TV television, and The Buffalo News) news media for commentary on many international political issues.
Professor Campbell was often called upon by national, international, various local, and Buffalo area news media about his election research and commentary on American elections. These included: National Public Radio, Ohio Public Radio, Minnesota Public Radio, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, ABC News, USA Today, Politico, Newsday, RTT News, the Binghamton Press and Sun-Journal, Yahoo News, CBS Market Watch, the Montreal Gazette, Greensboro News-Record, Mobile Press-Register, Palm Beach Daily News, DC Examiner, as well as a number of other media outlets. He also contributed essays on the election to both The Britannica Blog and to Larry J. Sabato’s Crystal Ball websites.
Professor Halpern also brought his political science expertise into the public arena. Professor Steve Halpern used his expertise in law to supervise law school interns and to serve as a pro bono counsel to a number of clients, including the Buffalo Living Wage Commission.
Washington Semester Program
Three Political Science students participated in the Washington Semester Program organized by SUNY Brockport .
UB Reporter Stories About the Department
Five named UB Distinguished Professors (Campbell)
Large GOP gains in House predicted (2010 Midterm Election) (Campbell)
Regional Knowledge Network launched (Eagles)
UB to salute faculty, staff authors (Eagles)
Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair hob knobs with
former political science graduate student Annika Hagley and
former UB Professor Josh Dyck at a reception before Blair’s
U.B. Distinguished Speaker talk.
page last updated on October 2011